This cohort study retrospectively analyzed 78,364 THAs performed from 1998 to 2009. The mean hospital charge for all THAs performed during the study period was $4,131.9 dollars. The average hospital charges for high-volume hospitals and surgeons were 6% and 7% lower, respectively, than those for low-volume hospitals and surgeons. Analysis by propensity score matching showed that hospital charges significantly differed between THA procedures performed by high- and low-volume hospitals ($3,285.8 dollars versus $4,816.2 dollars, respectively) and between THA procedures performed by high- and low-volume surgeons, ($3,438.5 dollars versus $4,404.7 dollars, respectively) (P < 0.001). The data indicate that analysis and emulation of the treatment strategies used by high-volume hospitals and by high-volume surgeons may reduce overall hospital charges.