The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 35, Issue 1, 247 - 254
Vancomycin-Gentamicin Prefabricated Spacers in 2-Stage Revision Arthroplasty for Chronic Hip and Knee Periprosthetic Joint Infection: Insights Into Reimplantation Microbiology and OutcomesCorró, Sebastián et al.
Second-stage positive cultures in 2-stage revision arthroplasty are a matter of concern, as their influence in outcomes is not clearly defined. We sought to study reimplantation microbiology when using vancomycin-gentamicin prefabricated cement spacers in hip and knee periprosthetic joint infection. The associations of second-stage positive cultures with treatment failures and patient-associated factors were analyzed.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study, examining patients managed with 2-stage revision arthroplasty due to knee or hip chronic periprosthetic joint infection between 2010 and 2017. Prefabricated vancomycin-gentamicin cement spacers were used during the spacer stage. Intraoperative microbiological culture results after the first and second stages were evaluated. The primary end point was infection eradication or relapse.
A total of 108 cases were included (61 hips and 47 knees). And 22.2% of patients had ≥1 second-stage positive culture, while 9.3% had ≥2 positive samples. Overall success, at an average follow-up of 46.4 months, was 77.8%. Treatment failure was higher among cases with positive cultures (15.5% vs 45.8%, P < .01) regardless of the number of positive samples. Diabetes was identified as a risk factor for second-stage positive cultures (P = .03); use of cement loaded with extra antibiotics for spacer fixation showed a protective effect (P < .01).
Second-stage positive cultures were related to a higher failure rate when using vancomycin-gentamicin cement spacers. Diabetes increased the likelihood of second-stage positive cultures. The use of extra-antibiotic-loaded cement for spacer fixation during the first stage showed a protective effect.