The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 35, Issue 3, 840 - 844

Tranexamic Acid Is Associated With Reduced Periprosthetic Joint Infection After Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty

Yazdi, Hamidreza et al.
Hip Knee

Background

Previous studies have demonstrated preoperative anemia to be a strong risk factor for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Allogeneic blood transfusion can be associated with increased risk of PJI after primary and revision TJA. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is known to reduce blood loss and the need for allogeneic blood transfusion after TJA. The hypothesis of this study is that administration of intravenous TXA would result in a reduction in PJI after TJA.

Methods

An institutional database was utilized to identify 6340 patients undergoing primary TJA between January 1, 2013 and June 31, 2017 with a minimum of 1-year follow-up. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they received intravenous TXA prior to TJA or not. Patients who developed PJI were identified. All PJI patients met the 2018 International Consensus Meeting definition for PJI. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify variables independently associated with PJI.

Results

Of the patients included, 3683 (58.1%) received TXA and 2657 (41.9%) did not. The overall incidence of preoperative anemia was 16%, postoperative blood transfusion 1.8%, and PJI 2.4%. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who received TXA were significantly at lower odds of infection. After adjusting for all confounding variables, multivariate regression analysis showed that TXA is associated with reduced PJI after primary TJA.

Conclusion

TXA can help reduce the rate of PJI after primary TJA. This protective effect is likely interlinked to reduction in blood loss, lower need for allogeneic blood transfusion, and issues related to immunomodulation associated with blood transfusion.

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