Patients treated with total hip arthroplasty (THA) for osteoarthritis (OA) and femoral neck fracture (FNF) between 1990–2007 were compared using the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). In-hospital, post-operative complications and disposition were compared at six-year intervals to establish trends over time. A total of 2,160,061 THAs were performed for OA, while 174,641 were performed for FNF. Peri-operative mortality and pulmonary embolism rates following elective THA were lower at each interval when compared to THA performed for FNF (P < 0.001). Hematomas, infections, and dislocations were also higher in the traumatic group. The FNF group showed improvements with respect to mortality and rates of pulmonary embolism, infection, and dislocation over time. During the most recent interval, there was no difference in dislocation rates between the two groups. The length of stay and the percentage of patients discharging to a rehab facility were significantly higher in the FNF group at each time interval.