The Journal of Arthroplasty , Volume 34 , Issue 2 , 385 - 396.e4

Tobacco Use and Risk of Wound Complications and Periprosthetic Joint Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty Procedures

Bedard, Nicholas A. et al.
Hip Knee

Background

The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between tobacco use and the risk of any wound complication and periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after primary total hip and total knee arthroplasty procedures.

Methods

Relevant articles published before January 2018 were identified by systematically searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for end points of any wound complication and PJI. Additional analyses were performed to evaluate risks between current, former, and non–tobacco users.

Results

Fourteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Tobacco users had a significantly higher risk of wound complications (OR, 1.78 [1.32-2.39]) and PJI (OR, 2.02 [1.47-2.77]) compared to non–tobacco users. Compared to non–tobacco users, there was an increased risk of PJI among current (OR, 2.16 [1.57-2.97] and former (OR, 1.52 [1.16-1.99]) tobacco users. Current tobacco users also had a significantly increased risk of PJI compared to former tobacco users (OR, 1.52 [1.07-2.14]).

Conclusion

Tobacco use before total hip and total knee arthroplasty significantly increases the risk of wound complications and PJI. This increased risk is present for both current and former tobacco users. However, former tobacco users had a significantly lower risk of wound complications and PJI compared to current tobacco users, suggesting that cessation of tobacco use before TJA can help to mitigate these observed risks.


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