Tissue Adhesive for Wound Closure Reduces Immediate Postoperative Wound Dressing Changes After Primary TKA: A Randomized Controlled Study in Simultaneous Bilateral TKAGromov, Kirill, MD, PhD; Troelsen, Anders, MD, PhD, DMSc; Raaschou, Sofie, RN; Sandhold, Håkon, BSc; Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard, MD, PhD; Kehlet, Henrik, MD, DMSc; Husted, Henrik, MD, DMSc
Background Prolonged wound drainage after TKA is associated with increased risk of infection. To decrease wound drainage, tissue adhesive has been suggested as an adjunct to wound closure after TKA; however, no studies of which we are aware have investigated the effect of tissue adhesive in a modern fast-track TKA setting.
Questions/purposes The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wound closure using a high-viscosity tissue adhesive in simultaneous bilateral TKA with respect to (1) postoperative wound drainage, measured as number of dressing changes in the first 72 hours postoperatively; and (2) wound healing assessed using the ASEPSIS score.
Methods Thirty patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral TKA were included in the study. The left knee was randomized to receive either standard three-layer closure with staples or the same closure supplemented with tissue adhesive with the opposite treatment used on the contralateral knee. One patient underwent a constrained TKA and underwent revision 2 days after the index procedure and was therefore excluded leaving 29 patients (58 knees) for analysis. Sixty-two percent (n = 18) were female. Mean age was 64 years (range, 42-78 years). Mean body mass index was 28 kg/m2 (range, 21–38 kg/m2). Postoperative wound drainage was evaluated as drainage resulting in a dressing change. The wound dressing was changed if it was soaked to the borders of the absorbable dressing at any point. The nurses changing the dressing were blinded to treatment allocation up to the first dressing change. The number of dressing changes during the first 72 hours postoperatively was recorded. The secondary study endpoint was the ASEPSIS score, which is a clinical score assessing wound healing. ASEPSIS score, measured by a nurse not involved in the treatment, was compared between the groups at 3 weeks followup.
Results Knees with tissue adhesive underwent fewer dressing changes (median, 0; interquartile range [IQR], 0-1) compared with the contralateral knee (IQR, 1-2; difference of medians, one dressing change; p = 0.001). A total of 59% of knees in the intervention group did not undergo any dressing changes before discharge, whereas 24% of knees in the control group did not undergo any dressing changes before discharge (p = 0.02). The knees in the intervention group and the control group did not differ with respect to ASEPSIS score at 3 weeks.
Conclusions Tissue adhesive as an adjunct to standard wound closure after primary TKA reduced the number of dressing changes after surgery, but did not change the appearance or healing of the wound at 3 weeks based on the ASEPSIS scores. Whether the small differences observed here in terms of the number of dressing changes performed will justify the additional costs associated with using this product or whether there are other differences associated with the use of tissue adhesive that may prove important such as patient preferences or longer term differences in wound healing or infection should be studied in the future.
Level of Evidence Level I, therapeutic study.