Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy May 2019, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 1442–1449

The native coronal orientation of tibial plateaus may limit the indications to perform a kinematic aligned total knee arthroplasty

Cinotti, G., Ripani, F.R., Ciolli, G. et al.
Knee

Purpose

To investigate the coronal alignment of tibial plateaus in normal and osteoarthritic knees and to simulate the effects of a tibial cut performed in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using a kinematic alignment technique with standard instrumentation.

 

Methods

The coronal alignment of tibial plateaus was measured in three groups including group 1 (reference group), 50 cadaveric tibiae showing no evidence of degenerative changes of tibial plateaus; group 2, 49 patients who underwent MR of the knee, showing no or mild degenerative changes of the knee joint and, group 3, 54 patients with knee osteoarthritis who underwent computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty.

 

Results

The coronal alignment of tibial plateaus averaged 2.4° with no significant differences between groups. The mean coronal orientation of tibial plateaus was 3° ± 2° in men and 1.6° ± 2° in women (p = 0.03). A coronal alignment of tibial plateaus of 3° or more was found in 69 cases (45%) and 5° or more in 23 (14.7%). The simulation of a tibial cut performed with an error of 3° in varus in 15% of the subjects showing a native coronal orientation of tibial plateaus of 3° or more, led to a final tibial cut greater 6° in 13.7% of cases.

 

Conclusions

A coronal alignment of tibial plateaus of 3° or more in varus was found in near half of normal subjects and osteoarthritic patients. A preoperative measurement of the coronal alignment of tibial plateaus is advisable in any patients scheduled for kinematic aligned TKA. As errors in the alignment of the tibial component of 3° or more may occur using standard instrumentations, the results of this study raise questions on performing a kinematic aligned TKA with standard instrumentations.

 

Level of evidence

IV.


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