The Journal of Arthroplasty , Volume 33 , Issue 7 , S86 - S92.e1

Short and Long-Term Postoperative Complications Following Total Joint Arthroplasty in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B, or Hepatitis C

Kildow, Beau J. et al.
Hip Knee

Introduction

Due to advancement in treatment against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), the prevalence of this patient population electing to undergo total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is increasing. Current literature is scarce and conflicting especially when evaluating long-term surgical complications. The purpose of this study is to assess the postoperative medical and surgical complications following TJA in these patient populations.

Methods

Using a nationwide database between 2005 and 2012, 4 cohorts were created: patients with HIV, HCV, HBV, and HIV and HBV or HCV who underwent TJA. Cohorts were matched to a control group by age, gender, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Thirty-day and 90-day medical complications and 90-day and 2-year surgical complications were evaluated using odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals.

Results

Following TJA, patients with HCV or HBV had increased risk of pneumonia, sepsis, joint infection, and revision surgery at 90 days and 2 years. Patients with HIV did not have increased risk of infection at 90 days and 2 years but did have increased risk of revision at 90 days (odds ratio 3.21, 95% confidence interval 1.31-7.84) following total hip arthroplasty.

Conclusions

Patients with HIV, HBV, or HCV have an overall increased risk of postoperative medical and surgical complications following TJA. Patients with HBV or HCV are at risk of more complications than patients with HIV especially for infection within 90 days after TJA. Patients with HIV are at risk of mechanical complications but do not appear to be at significant risk for infection following total hip arthroplasty.


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