The Journal of Arthroplasty , Volume 34 , Issue 1 , 151 - 156

Risk Factors for Nerve Injury After Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Case-Control Study

Shetty, Teena et al.
Hip

Background

Postsurgical acute nerve injury is rare but potentially devastating following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Previous literature suggests a wide range of incidence from 0.1% to 7.6%. Confirmed risk factors for these injuries remain unclear.

Methods

THA patients at our institution who developed nerve injury during their admission for THA between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2013, were systematically identified and matched with 2 control subjects by surgical date. Relevant patient and surgical data were obtained through review of patient charts and electronic health records. We identified potential risk factors and calculated odds ratios (OR) using a conditional logistic regression model with a parsimonious stepwise approach.

Results

We identified 93 nerve injuries in 43,761 THAs (0.21%). The mean age of cases was 63 years. Adjusting for other factors in the model, patients <45 years were found to be at increased risk of developing nerve injury (OR, 7.17; P = .033). Similarly, patients with a history of tobacco use (OR, 1.90; P = .030) and a history of spinal surgery or disease (OR, 10.06; P < .001) were also associated with increased risk of nerve injury. For every 30-minute increase in surgery time after 1 hour, risk of nerve injury risk increased (OR, 1.48; P = .034). Assignment as first operative case of the morning was associated with a decreased risk of nerve injury (OR, 0.37, P = .043).

Conclusion

This study demonstrates that nerve injury is a rare complication following THA at our institution. We found risk factors that are possibly modifiable factors such as lumbar spine disease, smoking, and time of surgical scheduling.


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