Review of periprosthetic osteolysis in total joint arthroplasty: An emphasis on host factors and future directionsRyan T. Beck Kenneth D. Illingworth Khaled J. Saleh
Ankle Elbow Hip Knee Shoulder Wrist
Periprosthetic osteolysis is one of the leading causes of total joint revision procedures. If allowed to progress in the absence of radiographic diagnosis and/or proper medical treatment, osteolysis may result in aseptic loosening yielding failure of the implant and the need for complex revision arthroplasty. The purpose of this review was to assess the current understanding of periprosthetic osteolysis with an emphasis on host factors and future directions. A PubMed search was conducted using the following key words; osteolysis, periprosthetic osteolysis, osteolysis imaging. Pertinent articles, as it pertained to the outline of the review, were selected. Periprosthetic osteolysis stems from numerous risk factors. Osteolysis host characteristic risk factors include gender, body weight, and genetics. Current implant designs have reduced the incidence of this disease; however no current design has been able to replicate the in vivo characteristics and therefore development of wear particles continues to be seen. Advanced methods of imaging diagnosis are on the rise, however early imaging diagnosis is currently ineffective. Pharmacologic intervention appears to be a logical avenue for medical intervention, but no approved drug therapy to prevent or inhibit periprosthetic osteolysis is currently available. Although the rate of periprosthetic osteolysis seems to be decreasing with advances in implant design and increased knowledge of the biological process of wear particle induced osteolysis, the rapid increase in the total number of total joint arthroplasties over the next two decades means that better ways of detecting and treating periprosthetic osteolysis are greatly needed. © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.