Perioperative blood management programme reduces the use of allogenic blood transfusion in patients undergoing total hip and knee arthroplastyKopanidis, P., Hardidge, A., McNicol, L. et al.
Optimisation of blood management in total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with improved patient outcomes. This study aimed to establish the effectiveness of a perioperative blood management programme in improving postoperative haemoglobin (Hb) and reducing the rate of allogenic blood transfusion.
This retrospective before and after study involves 200 consecutive patients undergoing elective TKA and THA before (Usual Care group) and after (Intervention group) the introduction of a blood management programme in an Australian teaching hospital. Patients in the Intervention group underwent preoperative treatment for anaemia and received intraoperative tranexamic acid (15 mg/kg). The primary outcomes were to compare postoperative Hb levels and the rate of blood transfusion. Secondary outcomes included measurements of total amount of allogenic blood transfused, transfusion-related complications, postoperative complications, need for inpatient rehabilitation and duration of hospital stay.
There were no differences between baseline characteristics between groups. The mean (SD) preoperative Hb was higher in the Intervention group compared to that in the Usual Care group: 138.7 (13.9) vs. 133.4 (13.9) g/L, p = 0.008, respectively. The postoperative day 1 Hb, lowest postoperative Hb and discharge Hb were all higher in the Intervention group (p < 0.001). Blood transfusion requirements were lower in the Intervention group compared to the Usual Care group (6 vs. 20 %, p = 0.003). There were no differences in any of the secondary outcomes measured. Patients who were anaemic preoperatively and who underwent Hb optimisation had higher Hb levels postoperatively (odds ratio 5.7; 95 % CI 1.3 to 26.5; p = 0.024).
The introduction of a perioperative blood optimisation programme improved postoperative Hb levels and reduced the rate of allogenic blood transfusion.