Patient-specific guide for revision of medial unicondylar knee arthroplasty to total knee arthroplastyBart Kerens, Bert Boonen, Martijn Schotanus & Nanne Kort
Background and purpose Unicompartmental to total knee arthroplasty revision surgery can be technically demanding. Joint line restoration, rotation, and augmentations can cause difficulties. We describe a new technique in which single-way fitting guides serve to position the knee system cutting blocks.
Method Preoperatively, images of the distal femur and proximal tibia are taken using CT scanning. These images are used to create a patient-specific guide that fits in one single position on the contours of the bone and the prosthesis in situ. The guides are fixed with pins and then removed. The pins determine the position of the cutting blocks. 10 consecutive revisions were performed using this technique.
Results All guides fitted well. 7 of 10 femoral prostheses were within the desired AP and sagittal angle ± 3°. However, 1 proximal tibia did not have enough bone stock on the medial plateau for adequate fixation of the guide, so conversion to intramedular referencing was performed. This was to be expected after the preoperative planning. All tibial components were within the desired AP angle ± 3° and 7 of 10 were within the desired sagittal angle. Hip-knee-ankle angle was within 0 ± 3° in 8 of 10 cases.
Interpretation This new technique makes preoperative planning and execution of this plan during surgery less demanding. Problems such as the need for augmentations can be predicted at the preoperative planning. The instrumentation must be redesigned in order to make this technique work in cases where there is minimal bone stock present.