The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 34, Issue 10, 2439 - 2443

Metaphyseal Fixation Using Highly Porous Cones in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: Minimum Two Year Follow Up Study

Denehy, Kevin M. et al.


Highly porous metaphyseal cones have been introduced to restore metaphyseal integrity for improved cement interdigitation to achieve durable fixation in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study is to review the survivorship, clinical results, and complications of revision TKA using highly porous 3-dimensionally printed titanium metaphyseal cones.


This is a review of 62 revision TKAs using metaphyseal tibial cones, with 15 cases utilizing both tibial and femoral cones. The mean age of the patients was 66 years (range 32-84) who had a mean follow-up of 27 months (range 24-34). There were 38 women and 24 men, who had a mean body mass index of 33 (range 18.3-62).


Revision-free survival of the cones was 90.2%. If infection was excluded, survivorship was 100%. There were no cases of aseptic loosening. The mean Knee Society Score improved from 51 points preoperatively to 80 points at the time of latest follow-up. The mean Knee Society Functional Score improved from 48 points preoperatively to 68 points. A total of 15 of the 62 patients (24%) required additional surgery: 10 (16%) for infection, 3 (5%) for contracture, 1 for patellar subluxation, and 1 for quadriceps tendon rupture.


Metaphyseal fixation is important for survivorship in revision TKA which can be challenging due to cancellous and structural bone loss encountered at the time of revision. Prosthetic joint infection continues to be the leading cause of failure in revision TKA. The use of highly porous titanium metaphyseal cones produced from 3-dimensionally printed technology used in this study demonstrated excellent short-term results with no cases of aseptic loosening. Further follow-up is required to determine if these results can be durable over a longer period.

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