Malnutrition increases the 30-day complication and re-operation rates in hip fracture patients treated with total hip arthroplasty. HIP International. 2020;30(5):635-640.

Malnutrition increases the 30-day complication and re-operation rates in hip fracture patients treated with total hip arthroplasty

Newman JM, Sodhi N, Khlopas A, et al.
Hip

This study sought to determine the effect that malnutrition, defined as hypoalbuminemia, has on hip fracture patients treated with total hip arthroplasty (THA). Specifically, we evaluated: (1) demographics and perioperative data; (2) postoperative complications; and (3) re-operation rates.

The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was utilised to identify hip fracture patients who underwent THA from 2008 to 2015. Propensity scores were calculated for the likelihood of having a preoperative albumin measurement. Hip fracture patients who underwent THA and had preoperative hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL) (n = 569) were compared to those who had normal albumin levels (⩾3.5 g/dL) (n = 1098) in terms of demographics and perioperative data. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, modified Charlson/Deyo scores, and propensity scores to evaluate complication and re-operation rates.

Compared to controls, hypoalbuminemia patients were older (p = 0.006), more likely male (p = 0.024), had higher Charlson/Deyo scores (p = 0.0001), more likely smokers (p < 0.0001), more likely functionally dependent (p < 0.0001), had ASA scores ⩾3 (p < 0.0001) and had longer LOS (p < 0.0001). Compared to controls, hypoalbuminemia patients had 80% higher risk for any complication (OR = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.43–2.26), 113% higher risk for major complications (OR = 2.13; 95% CI, 1.31–3.48), and 79% higher risk for minor complications (OR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.42–2.26), and 97% increased risk for re-operation (OR = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.20–3.23).

The findings in the present study indicate the need to develop better pre- and postoperative medical and nutritional care for malnourished hip fracture patients who undergo THA in order to potentially mitigate their increased risk.


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