One hundred forty-seven patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty and at high risk for HO at an urban medical center were randomized to receive either a single 400 or 700 cGy dose of radiation postoperatively. High risk was defined as a diagnosis of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, hypertrophic osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or history of previous HO. Radiation was administered on the first or second postoperative day. A single blinded reviewer graded radiographs taken immediately postoperatively and at a minimum of 6 months postoperatively using the Brooker classification. Progression was defined as an increase in Brooker classification. Operative data including surgical approach, implant fixation, revision surgery, and postoperative range of motion data were also collected.