The Journal of Arthroplasty , Volume 33 , Issue 12 , 3629 - 3636

Cost-Effectiveness of Total Hip Arthroplasty Versus Nonoperative Management in Normal, Overweight, Obese, Severely Obese, Morbidly Obese, and Super Obese Patients: A Markov Model

Ponnusamy, Karthikeyan E. et al.


We estimated the cost-effectiveness of performing total hip arthroplasty (THA) vs nonoperative management (NM) among 6 body mass index (BMI) cohorts.


We constructed a state-transition Markov model to compare the cost utility of THA and NM in the 6 BMI groups over a 15-year period. Model parameters for transition probability (risk of revision, re-revision, and death), utility, and costs (inflation adjusted to 2017 US dollars) were estimated from the literature. Direct medical costs of managing hip arthritis were accounted in the model. Indirect societal costs were not included. A 3% annual discount rate was used for costs and utilities. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of THA vs NM. One-way and Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analyses of the model parameters were performed to determine the robustness of the model.


Over the 15-year time period, the ICERs for THA vs NM were the following: normal weight ($6043/QALYs [quality-adjusted life years]), overweight ($5770/QALYs), obese ($5425/QALYs), severely obese ($7382/QALYs), morbidly obese ($8338/QALYs), and super obese ($16,651/QALYs). The 2 highest BMI groups had higher incremental QALYs and incremental costs. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggests that THA would be cost-effective in 100% of the normal, overweight, obese, severely obese, and morbidly obese simulations, and 99.95% of super obese simulations at an ICER threshold of $50,000/QALYs.


Even at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALYs, which is considered low for the United States, our model showed that THA would be cost-effective for all obesity levels. BMI cut-offs for THA may lead to unnecessary loss of healthcare access.

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