The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 35, Issue 3, 794 - 800

Complications and Readmission Incidence Following Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients Who Have End-Stage Renal Failure

Malkani, Jacob A. et al.
Hip

Background

The number of patients who have end-stage renal disease undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has increased over the past decade. The purpose of this study is to evaluate mortality, complications, and 90-day readmission incidences in patients who have end-stage renal disease undergoing THA.

Methods

Patients who had a primary THA between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2016, were identified from the 5% Medicare database. A total of 55,297 THA patients were stratified into 3 groups: renal dialysis (without transplant), renal transplant, and those without such renal problems. Risk of readmissions, dislocations, periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs), venous thromboembolic diseases, and mortalities up to 5 years following primary THA was compared. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of patient and hospital characteristics on the adjusted complication risks.

Results

Mortalities at 5 years was 62.6% in the renal dialysis group, 37.3% in the renal transplant group, compared to 15.0% in the nonrenal group. Dislocations (7.6%) and PJIs (7%) were significantly higher in the dialysis group (P < .001). No significant differences in venous thromboembolic diseases (all timepoints) and revisions (all timepoints except at 90 days) between the renal groups were observed. The 90-day readmission risks were significantly greater in both the dialysis (55%) and transplant (43%) groups compared to the nonrenal cohort (30%) (P < .001).

Conclusion

Renal dialysis patients undergoing THA are at increased risk of PJIs (7%), dislocations (7.6%), revisions, and mortalities at 90 days compared to transplant and nonrenal patients. Both dialysis and transplant patients are high-risk groups with significantly increased 90-day readmission incidences of 55% and 43%, respectively, which makes their inclusion into a bundled payment model challenging.

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