The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery; February 19, 2020; 102 (4): 315

Between-Hospital Variation in Revision Rates After Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty in the Netherlands

Van Schie Peter, MD; Van Steenbergen Liza N., PhD; Van Bodegom-vos Leti, PhD; Nelissen Rob G. H. H., MD, PhD; Marang-van De Mheen Perla J., PhD;
Hip Knee
Background: Variation in 1-year revision rates between Dutch hospitals after primary total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) may direct quality-improvement initiatives if this variation accurately reflects true hospital differences. The aim of the present study was to assess the extent of variation, both overall and for specific indications, as well as the statistical reliability of ranking hospitals.
Methods: All primary THAs and TKAs that were performed between January 2014 and December 2016 were included. Observed/expected (O/E) ratios regarding 1-year revision rates were depicted in a funnel plot with 95% control limits to identify outliers based on 1 or 3 years of data, both overall and by specific indication for revision. The expected number was calculated on the basis of patient mix with use of logistic regression models. The statistical reliability of ranking hospitals (rankability) on these outcomes indicates the percentage of total variation that is explained by “true” hospital differences rather than chance. Rankability was evaluated using fixed and random effects models, for overall revisions and specific indications for revision, including 1 versus 3 years of data.
Results: The present study included 86,468 THAs and 73,077 TKAs from 97 and 98 hospitals, respectively. Thirteen hospitals performing THAs were identified as negative outliers (median O/E ratio, 1.9; interquartile range [IQR], 1.5-2.5), with 5 hospitals as outliers in multiple years. Eight negative outliers were identified for periprosthetic joint infection; 4, for dislocation; and 2, for prosthesis loosening. Seven hospitals performing TKAs were identified as negative outliers (median O/E ratio, 2.3; IQR, 2.2-2.8), with 2 hospitals as outliers in multiple years. Two negative outlier hospitals were identified for periprosthetic joint infection and 1 was identified for technical failures. The rankability for overall revisions was 62% (moderate) for THA and 46% (low) for TKA.
Conclusions: There was large between-hospital variation in 1-year revision rates after primary THA and TKA. For most outlier hospitals, a specific indication for revision could be identified as contributing to worse performance, particularly for THA; these findings are starting points for quality-improvement initiatives.

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