Venous thromboembolism (VTE) comprises pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis and is a complication of particular concern in lower limb arthroplasty. In recent years, aspirin has emerged as a potential alternative thromboprophylactic agent, particularly after its acceptance as a recommended agent by the American College of Chest Physicians. Aspirin is favorable due to its relative cost-effectiveness and convenience compared to novel oral anticoagulants and warfarin. However, its efficacy since its inclusion in the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines remains unclear. The present systematic review aimed to establish the efficacy of aspirin in preventing VTE in total hip and knee arthroplasty.