The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 31, Issue 11, 2442 - 2446

Are Preoperative Serologic Type and Screen Tests Necessary for Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty Patients in Specialty Surgical Hospitals?

Tischler, Eric H. et al.
Hip Knee

Background

Blood loss during total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has been a major concern requiring routine preoperative patient type and screen (T&S); however, with the implementation of blood conserving therapy, a marked decrease for perioperative transfusions has been observed. Many TJAs are now being performed in T&S mandated specialty surgical hospitals (SSHs) that lack on-site blood banks; therefore, the purpose of our study was to determine whether T&S (1) is necessary in SSH for TJA patients and (2) identifies patient risk factors associated with perioperative blood transfusion in SSH.

Methods

A retrospective study was conducted on 1034 consecutive primary TJAs performed between 2013 and 2014 at a 12-bed SSH who all received T&S. Patients were matched (1:1) to 964 inpatient TJA patients performed at a university hospital without routine T&S. Data on surgery type, patient demographics, hemoglobin and hematocrit results, and transfusion rates were collected. Multivariate logistic regression identified perioperative transfusion risk factors.

Results

Overall transfusion rates for the matched SSH (1.8% [17/964]) and university hospital populations (2.9% [28/964]) were similar (P = .13), with no emergent transfusions. SSH transfusion rates for simultaneous bilateral THA, simultaneous bilateral TKA, unilateral THA, and unilateral TKA were 21.1% (4/19), 3.1% (4/128), 2.7% (12/439), and 0.0% (0/448), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression identified unilateral THA (P ≤ .001), simultaneous bilateral TJA (P = .001), age (P = .05), and abnormal preoperative hemoglobin (P = .02) as significant transfusion risk factors at SSH.

Conclusion

Due to low transfusion rates and lack of emergency transfusions, we recommend routinely ordering T&S for bilateral THA but not for unilateral TJA patients, at SSHs.


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