Proper acetabular cup orientation is essential in total hip arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a particular imageless computer navigation system in determining cup position. Thirty-nine computer-navigated total hip arthroplasty intraoperative measurements of cup abduction and anteversion were compared with those from follow-up radiographs. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, prevalence-adjusted positive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated for both navigation and radiographs. Navigation measurements had high specificity and PPV when assessing cup abduction and anteversion (specificity >90%, PPV >94%). In contrast, the system was not very effective in detecting suboptimal cup position (sensitivity abduction, 50%; anteversion, 33%). Intraoperative navigation readings in the safe zone have high probability of indicating correct placement. However, confirmation of suboptimal cup position intraoperatively requires additional diagnostic methods.