A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Use of Antifibrinolytic Agents in Total Hip ArthroplastyHuang F, Wu Y, Yin Z, Ma G, Chang J.
Antifibrinolytic agents such as tranexamic acid (TXA), epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA), and aprotinin are widely used to reduce bleeding and the need for transfusion in cardiac, orthopaedic, and hepatic surgery. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytic agents in total hip arthroplasty (THA).
A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases, as well as the reference lists of relevant articles. Only randomised controlled trials were eligible for this study. The weighted mean difference in blood loss, number of transfusions per patient, and the summary risk ratio of transfusion requirements and deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) were calculated in the antifibrinolytic agents-treated and control groups.
A total of 28 randomised controlled trials involving 2,131 patients were included. Patients receiving antifibrinolytic agents had a reduced total blood loss by a mean of 389.14 ml (95% CI, −483.05 to −295.23), and the number of blood transfusions per patient by 0.65 units (95% CI, −1.19 to −0.12). Antifibrinolytic agents led to a significant reduction in transfusion requirements (RR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.70) and no increase in the risk of DVT (RR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.42).
Our meta-analysis demonstrated that antifibrinolytic agents significantly reduce blood loss and blood transfusion requirements while not increasing the risk of DVT in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.