The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 35, Issue 3, 836 - 839

A Novel Adjunct Indicator of Periprosthetic Joint Infection: Platelet Count and Mean Platelet Volume

Paziuk, Taylor et al.
Hip Knee

Background

Diagnosing a periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is difficult and often requires a combination of objective findings. The purpose of this study is to determine whether platelets, a known acute phase reactant, would be able to further aid in the diagnosis of PJI.

Methods

A single-institution retrospective review study was performed on all revision total hip and knee arthroplasties done between 2000 and 2016 (n = 4939). PJI was defined by Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria (n = 949). Platelet count and mean platelet volume were assessed from each patient’s preoperative complete blood count. These values were then assessed as a ratio via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.

Results

The platelet count to mean platelet volume ratio for PJI patients was 33.45 compared to 25.68 for patients in the aseptic revision cohort (P < .001). ROC curve analysis demonstrates that a ratio of 31.70 has a sensitivity of 48.10 (95% confidence interval 44.9-51.4) and a specificity of 80.85 (95% confidence interval 79.6-82.1). This specificity was higher than that of both estimated sedimentation ratio (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) for the same cohorts using optimal values determined via ROC curve analysis. When used in conjunction with ESR and CRP, there was a statistically significant increase in the diagnostic performance of the model used to assess PJI relative to the model that just employed ESR and CRP (P < .05).

Conclusion

Our study demonstrates that platelets and their associated serum biomarkers are associated with PJI and warrant consideration in patients who are being evaluated for potential PJI.

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