Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017 Jul 28. pii: S1198-743X(17)30406-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2017.07.022.

The impact of preoperative bacteriuria on the risk of periprosthetic joint infection after primary knee or hip replacement: a retrospective study with a 1-year follow up

Honkanen M, Jämsen E, Karppelin M, Huttunen R, Huhtala H, Eskelinen A, Syrjänen J.

Objectives: Patients who undergo elective joint replacement are traditionally screened and treated for preoperative bacteriuria to prevent periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). More recently, this practice has been questioned. The purpose of this study was to determine whether preoperative bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of PJI.

Patients who had undergone a primary hip or knee replacement in a tertiary care hospital between September 2002 and December 2013 were identified from the hospital database (23 171 joint replacements, 10 200 hips, and 12 971 knees). The results of urine cultures taken within 90 days before the operation were obtained. Patients with subsequent PJI or superficial wound infection in a 1-year follow-up period were identified based on prospective infection surveillance. The association between bacteriuria and PJI was examined using a multivariable logistic regression model that included information on the operated joint, age, gender and the patients’ chronic diseases.

The incidence of PJI was 0.68% (n = 158). Preoperative bacteriuria was not associated with an increased risk of PJI either in the univariate (0.51% versus 0.71%, OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.34–1.54) or in the multivariable (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.38–1.77) analysis. There were no cases where PJI was caused by a pathogen identified in the preoperative urine culture. Results were similar for superficial infections.

Conclusions: There was no association between preoperative bacteriuria and postoperative surgical site infection. Based on these results, it seems that the preoperative screening and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is not required.

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