Cementless total hip arthroplasty in patients with high congenital hip dislocation.Eskelinen A, Helenius I, Remes V, Ylinen P, Tallroth K, Paavilainen T.
BACKGROUND: The optimal surgical treatment for patients with high congenital dislocation of the hip remains controversial. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the mid-term to long-term results of cementless total hip arthroplasty in such patients.
METHODS: The study included sixty-eight total hip replacements performed between 1989 and 1994 in fifty-six consecutive patients with high congenital hip dislocation at our hospital. The cup was placed at the level of the true acetabulum, and a shortening osteotomy of the proximal part of the femur and distal advancement of the greater trochanter were performed in 90% of the hips. At the time of final follow-up, at a mean of 12.3 years postoperatively, fifty-two patients (sixty-four hips) were evaluated by us with a physical examination, determination of Harris hip scores, and radiographs.
RESULTS: The mean Harris hip score increased from 54 points preoperatively to 84 points at the time of final follow-up (p < 0.001). There was a negative Trendelenburg sign in fifty-nine (92%) of the sixty-four hips. There were thirteen perioperative complications (19%): three peroneal nerve palsies, one femoral nerve palsy, one superior gluteal nerve palsy, four nondisplaced fractures of the proximal part of the femur, one malpositioned stem perforating the posteromedial cortex of the femur, one superficial wound infection, and two early dislocations. With revision because of aseptic loosening as the end point, the ten-year survival rate for press-fit, porous-coated acetabular components was 94.9% (95% confidence interval, 89.3% to 100%). Eight of nine threaded acetabular components were revised, and the ninth was radiographically loose at the time of the last follow-up examination. The rate of survival for the CDH femoral components, with revision because of aseptic loosening as the end point, was 98.4% (95% confidence interval, 96.8% to 100%) at ten years.
CONCLUSIONS: Total hip arthroplasty, with placement of the cup at the level of the true acetabulum, distal advancement of the greater trochanter, and femoral shortening osteotomy, can be recommended for patients with high congenital hip dislocation. Complications such as wear, osteolysis, and cup revision were secondary to the suboptimal design of the acetabular components used in this series.