The Influence of Different Rotator Cuff Deficiencies on Shoulder Stability Following Reverse Shoulder ArthroplastyAndrea P. Caceres, MS,1,2 Vijay N. Permeswaran, PhD,1,2 Jessica E. Goetz, PhD,1,2 Carolyn M. Hettrich, MD, MPH,1 and Donald D. Anderson, PhDcorresponding author1
The primary indication for reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is rotator cuff arthropathy caused by a deficient rotator cuff. Cuff deficiency in patients is highly variable in its distribution and extent, with mechanical implications that may significantly affect post-operative recovery. This study investigated the effects of variable cuff deficiency on the propensity for impingement between the scapula and humeral component and resulting subluxation, the source of two common complications (scapular notching and instability).
Five different finite element models of an RSA were analyzed with varying degrees of rotator cuff deficiency: (1) baseline, with intact subscapularis, infraspinatus and teres minor, (2) no subscapularis, (3) no subscapularis or infraspinatus, (4) no infraspinatus, and (5) no infraspinatus or teres minor. The supraspinatus was not included in any models, as it is absent in rotator cuff arthropathy. Each model was moved through a prescribed arc of 45° internal/ external rotation originating from neutral.
Greater rotator cuff deficiency was associated with more impingement and larger magnitudes of subluxation. The largest subluxation (7.5 mm) and highest impingement-related contact stress (479 MPa) was in the model lacking all rotator cuff muscle groups. Posterior subluxation was present in most models lacking the infraspinatus, while anterior subluxation was present in all models lacking the subscapularis.
This study helps clarify how different rotator cuff deficiencies influence shoulder stability following RSA and can ultimately help predict which patients may be at greater risk for impingement-related scapular notching and subluxation.
Surgeons should carefully consider the nature of the rotator cuff deficiency and its influence on impingement and instability when planning for RSA.
Level of Evidence: V