Microorganisms. 2020 Dec; 8(12): 1977.

Alteration of Bacterial Communities in Anterior Nares and Skin Sites of Patients Undergoing Arthroplasty Surgery: Analysis by 16S rRNA and Staphylococcal-Specific tuf Gene Sequencing

Søren Iversen,1,* Thor Bech Johannesen,1 Anna Cäcilia Ingham,1 Sofie Marie Edslev,1 Staffan Tevell,2,3 Emeli Månsson,3,4 Åsa Nilsdotter-Augustinsson,5 Bo Söderquist,3,6,† Marc Stegger,1,3,† and Paal Skytt Andersen1,†
Hip Knee

The aim was to study alterations of bacterial communities in patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty to assess the impact of chlorhexidine gluconate soap decolonisation and systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. A Swedish multicentre, prospective collection of samples obtained from elective arthroplasty patients (n = 83) by swabbing anterior nares, skin sites in the groin and the site of planned surgery, before and after arthroplasty surgery, was analysed by 16S rRNA (V3-V4) gene sequencing and a complementary targeted tuf gene sequencing approach to comprehensively characterise alterations in staphylococcal communities. Significant reductions in alpha diversity was detected for both bacterial (p = 0.04) and staphylococcal (p = 0.03) groin communities after arthroplasty surgery with significant reductions in relative Corynebacterium (p = 0.001) abundance and Staphylococcus hominis (p = 0.01) relative staphylococcal abundance. In nares, significant reductions occurred for Staphylococcus hominis (p = 0.02), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (p = 0.02), and Staphylococcus pasteuri (p = 0.003) relative to other staphylococci. Staphylococcus aureus colonised 35% of anterior nares before and 26% after arthroplasty surgery. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most abundant staphylococcal species at all sampling sites. No bacterial genus or staphylococcal species increased significantly after arthroplasty surgery. Application of a targeted tuf gene sequencing approach provided auxiliary staphylococcal community profiles and allowed species-level characterisation directly from low biomass clinical samples.

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