The accuracy and precision of radiostereometric analysis in upper limb arthroplastyBart Ten Brinke, Annechien Beumer, Koen L M Koenraadt, Denise Eygendaal, Gerald A Kraan & Nina M C Mathijssen
Background and purpose — Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is an accurate method for measurement of early migration of implants. Since a relation has been shown between early migration and future loosening of total knee and hip prostheses, RSA plays an important role in the development and evaluation of prostheses. However, there have been few RSA studies of the upper limb, and the value of RSA of the upper limb is not yet clear. We therefore performed a systematic review to investigate the accuracy and precision of RSA of the upper limb.
Patients and methods — PRISMA guidelines were followed and the protocol for this review was published online at PROSPERO under registration number CRD42016042014. A systematic search of the literature was performed in the databases Embase, Medline, Cochrane, Web of Science, Scopus, Cinahl, and Google Scholar on April 25, 2015 based on the keywords radiostereometric analysis, shoulder prosthesis, elbow prosthesis, wrist prosthesis, trapeziometacarpal joint prosthesis, humerus, ulna, radius, carpus. Articles concerning RSA for the analysis of early migration of prostheses of the upper limb were included. Quality assessment was performed using the MINORS score, Downs and Black checklist, and the ISO RSA
Results — 23 studies were included. Precision values were in the 0.06–0.88 mm and 0.05–10.7° range for the shoulder, the 0.05–0.34 mm and 0.16–0.76° range for the elbow, and the 0.16–1.83 mm and 11–124° range for the TMC joint. Accuracy data from marker- and model-based RSA were not reported in the studies included.
Interpretation — RSA is a highly precise method for measurement of early migration of orthopedic implants in the upper limb. However, the precision of rotation measurement is poor in some components. Challenges with RSA in the upper limb include the symmetrical shape of prostheses and the limited size of surrounding bone, leading to over-projection of the markers by the prosthesis. We recommend higher adherence to RSA guidelines and encourage investigators to publish long-term follow-up RSA studies.