Degeneration of three or more lumbar discs significantly decreases lumbar spine/hip ROM ratio during position change from standing to sitting in AVN patients before THAGu, J., Feng, H., Feng, X. et al.
Limitations in the lumbar spine movement reduce lumbar vertebral motion and affect spinopelvic kinematics. We studied the influence of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration on spinofemoral movement, from standing to sitting, in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA).
Of 138 consecutive patients scheduled for THA due to unilateral avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head, those with ≥3 discs with University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) disc degeneration score > 1 were defined as the lumbar degenerative disc disease (LDD) group, and the remaining patients constituted d the control group. Full body anteroposterior and lateral EOS images in the standing and sitting positions were obtained. Pelvic incidence (PI), L1 slope (L1 s), lumbar lordosis angle (LL), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), femoral slope (Fs), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), hip flexion, lumbar spine flexion, and total spinofemoral flexion were measured on the images and compared between groups.
No significant between-group differences were observed in the height, weight, body mass index, AVN staging, or PI, SS, and Fs on standing. The LDD group included more females and older patients, had 5° lesser LL, 5° greater PT, and larger SVA. From standing to sitting, the PI remained constant in both groups. Total spinofemoral flexion was 7° less, lumbar spine flexion 16° less, L1 slope change 6° less, and SS change 8° less, and hip flexion was 7° more in the LDD than in the control group. The spine/hip flexion ratio was significantly lower in the LDD group (0.3 versus 0.7; p < 0.001). On regression analysis, the LDD group (p < 0.001) and older age (p = 0.048) but not sex, weight, or height were significant univariate predictors of decreased spine/hip ratio.
Patients with LDD leant more forward and had a larger pelvis posterior tilt angle on standing and a decreased lumbar spine/hip flexion ratio, with more hip joint flexion, on sitting, to compensate for reduced lumbar spine flexion. Surgeons should be aware that elderly patients with multiple LDD have significantly different spinofemoral movements and increased risk of posterior dislocation post-THA. Preoperative patient identification, intraoperative surgical technique modification, and individualized rehabilitation protocols are necessary.