The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 35, Issue 5, 1200 - 1207.e4

Validation of the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Pain and Function Subscales for Use in Total Hip Replacement and Total Knee Replacement Clinical Trials

Goodman, Susan M. et al.
Hip Knee


Total hip replacement (THR)/total knee replacement (TKR) studies do not uniformly measure patient centered domains, pain, and function. We aim to validate existing measures of pain and function within subscales of standard instruments to facilitate measurement.


We evaluated baseline and 2-year pain and function for THR and TKR using Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS)/Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), with primary unilateral TKR (4796) and THR (4801). Construct validity was assessed by correlating HOOS/KOOS pain and activities of daily living (ADL), function quality of life (QOL), and satisfaction using Spearman correlation coefficients. Patient relevant thresholds for change in pain and function were anchored to improvement in QOL; minimally clinically important difference (MCID) corresponded to “a little improvement” and a really important difference (RID) to a “moderate improvement.” Pain and ADL function scores were compared by quartiles using Kruskal-Wallis.


Two-year HOOS/KOOS pain and ADL function correlated with health-related QOL (KOOS pain and Short Form 12 Physical Component Scale ρ = 0.54; function ρ = 0.63). Comparing QOL by pain and function quartiles, the highest levels of pain relief and function were associated with the most improved QOL. MCID for pain was estimated at ≥20, and the RID ≥29; MCID for function ≥14, and the RID ≥23. The measures were responsive to change with large effect sizes (≥1.8).


We confirm that HOOS/KOOS pain and ADL function subscales are valid measures of critical patient centered domains after THR/TKR, and achievable thresholds anchored to improved QOL. Cost-free availability and brevity makes them feasible, to be used in a core measurement set in total joint replacement trials.

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