Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy July 2019, Volume 27, Issue 7, pp 2051–2060

Valgus position of the femoral component causes abnormal kinematics in the presence of medial looseness in total knee arthroplasty: a computer simulation model of TKA for valgus knee osteoarthritis

Nishitani, K., Kuriyama, S., Nakamura, S. et al.
Knee

Purpose

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for valgus knee osteoarthritis is challenging. Although overcorrection in TKA for valgus knee osteoarthritis is recommended, supportive data based on biomechanics have rarely been reported. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether coronal rotation of the femoral compartment causes abnormal kinematics with or without medial looseness.

 

Methods

Multi- and single-radius posterior-stabilised TKA implants were utilised in a computer simulation. A total of 4 mm of slack were provided in the medial collateral ligament (MCL) with varus or valgus position of the femoral component to simulate the context of valgus knee osteoarthritis. Kinematics during gait and squatting activities were evaluated in each condition.

 

Results

During squatting, medial looseness and valgus replacement caused anterior translation of the medial femoral component in mid-flexion in the multi-radius implant. In the worst condition (7° valgus replacement with MCL looseness), there was rapid anterior translation in the multi-radius implant, and moderate anterior translation in the single-radius implant. Although medial looseness alone did not cause abnormal kinematics during gait, the worst condition exhibited an anterior translation to 4.9 mm in the multi-radius implant. This worst condition also exhibited a marked lift-off of 8.0 and 2.9 mm in the multi- and single-radius implants, respectively. Varus position caused little abnormal kinematics even with MCL looseness.

 

Conclusion

Valgus, not varus position of the femoral component caused abnormal kinematics with MCL looseness. To avoid valgus position, the safety target angle of femoral component would be slight varus rather than neutral in valgus knee OA.


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