The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 35, Issue 5, 1384 - 1389

Two-Stage Exchange Arthroplasty for Periprosthetic Joint Infection Following Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty Is Associated With High Attrition Rate and Mortality

Barton, Cameron B. et al.
Hip Knee

Background

We sought to determine the ultimate fate of patients undergoing resection arthroplasty as a first stage in the process of 2-stage exchange and evaluate risk factors for modes of failure.

Methods

A retrospective case study was performed including all patients with minimum 2-year follow-up who underwent first-stage resection of a hip or knee periprosthetic joint infection from 2008 to 2015. Patient demographics, laboratory, and health status variables were collected. The primary outcome analyzed was defined as failure to achieve an infection-free 2-stage revision. Univariate pairwise comparison followed by multivariate regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for failure outcomes.

Results

Eighty-nine patients underwent resection arthroplasty in a planned 2-stage exchange protocol (27 hips, 62 knees). Mean age was 64 years (range, 43-84), 56.2% were males, and mean follow-up was 56.3 months. Also, 68.5% (61/89) of patients underwent second-stage revision. Of the 61 patients who complete a 2-stage protocol, 14.8% (9/61) of patients failed with diagnosis of repeat or recurrent infection. Mortality rate was 23.6%. Multivariate analysis identified risk factors for failure to achieve an infection-free 2-stage revision as polymicrobial infection ( P < .004; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 7.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-29.0), McPherson extremity grade 3 ( P < .024; AOR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.2-14.3), and history of prior resection ( P < .013; AOR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.4-16.4).

Conclusion

Patients undergoing resection arthroplasty for periprosthetic joint infection are at high risk of death (24%) and failure to complete the 2-stage protocol (32%). Those who complete the 2-stage protocol have a 15% rate of reinfection at 4.5-year follow-up.

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