Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy January 2016, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 229–235

Two-dimensional planning can result in internal rotation of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty

Okamoto, S., Mizu-uchi, H., Okazaki, K. et al.
Knee

Purpose

The first purpose of this study was to compare the reproducibility of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) measurements for preoperative planning of the femoral side in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The second purpose was to evaluate the factors affecting the differences between the 2D and 3D measurements.

 

Methods

Two-dimensional and 3D measurements for preoperative planning of the femoral side in TKA were evaluated in 75 varus knees with osteoarthritis. The femoral valgus angle, defined as the angle between the mechanical and anatomical axes of the femur, and the clinical rotation angle and surgical rotation angle, defined by the angles between the posterior condylar line and the clinical or surgical transepicondylar axes, respectively, were analysed using 2D (radiographs and axial CT slices) and 3D (3D bone models reconstructed from CT images) measurements.

 

Results

For all variables, 3D measurements were more reliable and reproducible than 2D measurements. The medians and ranges of the clinical rotation angle and surgical rotation angle were 6.6° (−1.7° to 12.1°) and 2.3° (−2.5° to 8.6°) in 2D, and 7.1° (2.7° to 11.4°) and 3.0° (−2.0° to 7.5°) in 3D. Varus/valgus alteration of the CT scanning direction relative to the mechanical axis affected the difference in clinical rotation angles between 2D and 3D measurements.

 

Conclusion

Significantly, smaller values of the clinical rotation angle and surgical rotation angle were obtained by 2D compared to 3D measurements, which could result in internal rotation of the femoral component even if the surgeon performs the bone cutting precisely. Regarding clinical relevance, first, this study confirmed the reliability of 3D measurements. Second, it underscored the risk of internal rotation of the femoral component when using 2D measurement, even with precise bone cutting technique. These results will help surgeons avoid malpositioning of the femoral component if 2D measurements are used for preoperative planning in TKA.

 

Level of evidence

Prospective comparative study, Level Ш.


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