The Journal of Arthroplasty , Volume 33 , Issue 7 , S233 - S238

Trends in Periprosthetic Hip Infection and Associated Costs: A Population-Based Study Assessing the Impact of Hospital Factors Using National Data

Brochin, Robert L. et al.


Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is an important cost driver in hip arthroplasty revisions, thus necessitating careful trend monitoring. Recent national trend data are lacking; we therefore assessed national PJI burden, trends in prevalence, and hospitalization costs.


We extracted data on hip arthroplasty revisions from the National Inpatient Sample (2003-2013; n = 465,209). Trends in PJI prevalence and hospitalization costs were (1) assessed for the full cohort and (2) stratified by hospital teaching status, hospital bed size (≤299, 300-499, and ≥500 beds), and hospital region (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). The Cochran-Armitage trend test (PJI prevalence) and linear regression (hospitalization costs) determined significance of trends. Trends were adjusted for patient’s age, gender, insurance type, race, Deyo-Charlson comorbidities, obesity, length of stay, and hospital characteristics.


Overall, PJI prevalence was 15.0% (n = 70,011); adjusted prevalence increased from 13.1% in 2003 to 16.4% in 2013 (P < .0001), while adjusted median PJI hospitalization costs increased from $28,240 in 2003 to $31,529 in 2013 (P < .0001). Rural hospitals had the lowest PJI burden (12.5%; n = 4,525), while urban and teaching hospitals had the highest PJI burden (16.4%; n = 40,297). The stratified analyses, particularly in large hospitals (>500 beds), showed that PJI prevalence increased from 13.0% (2003) to 17.4% (2013; a 33.8% increase; P < .0001). Similarly, PJI revision hospitalization costs increased from a median of $27,490 (2003) to $31,312 (2013; a 14% increase; P < .0001).


The burden of PJI in hip arthroplasty revision is increasing and—while additional research is needed—there appears to be a particular shift of revision burden to larger hospitals with increasing costs.

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