The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 32, Issue 6, 1910 - 1917

Total Hip Arthroplasty in the Spinal Deformity Population: Does Degree of Sagittal Deformity Affect Rates of Safe Zone Placement, Instability, or Revision?

DelSole, Edward M. et al.
Hip

Background

Changes in spinal alignment and pelvic tilt alter acetabular orientation in predictable ways, which may have implications on stability of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Patients with sagittal spinal deformity represent a subset of patients who may be at particularly high risk of THA instability because of postural compensation for abnormal spinal alignment.

Methods

Using standing stereoradiography, we evaluated the spinopelvic parameters, acetabular cup anteversion, and inclination of 139 THAs in 107 patients with sagittal spinal deformity. Standing images were compared with supine pelvic radiographs to evaluate dynamic changes in acetabular cup position. Dislocation and revision rates were procured through retrospective chart review. The spinal parameters and acetabular cup positions among dislocators were compared with those who did not dislocate.

Results

The rate of THA dislocation in this cohort was 8.0%, with a revision rate of 5.8% for instability. Patients who sustained dislocations had significantly higher spinopelvic tilt, T1-pelvic angle, and mismatch of lumbar lordosis and pelvic incidence. Among all patients, 78% had safe anteversion while supine, which decreased significantly to 58% when standing due to increases in spinopelvic tilt. Among dislocating THA, 80% had safe anteversion, 80% had safe inclination, and 60% had both parameters within the safe zone.

Conclusion

In this cohort, patients with THA and concomitant spinal deformity have a particularly high rate of THA instability despite having an acetabular cup position traditionally thought of as within acceptable alignment. This dislocation risk may be driven by the degree of spinal deformity and by spinopelvic compensation. Surgeons should anticipate potential instability after hip arthroplasty and adjust their surgical plan accordingly.


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