The role of bone cement for the development of intraoperative hypotension and hypoxia and its impact on mortality in hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracturesFredrik Olsen, Mathias Hård Af Segerstad, Bengt Nellgård, Erik Houltz & Sven-Erik Ricksten
Background and purpose — The bone cement implantation syndrome characterized by hypotension and/or hypoxia is a well-known complication in cemented arthroplasty. We studied the incidence of hypotension and/or hypoxia in patients undergoing cemented or uncemented hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures and evaluated whether bone cement was an independent risk factor for postoperative mortality.
Patients and methods — In this retrospective cohort study, 1,095 patients from 2 hospitals undergoing hemiarthroplasty with (n = 986) and without (n = 109) bone cementation were included. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative data were obtained from electronic medical records. Each patient was classified for grade of hypotension and hypoxia during and after prosthesis insertion according to Donaldson’s criteria (Grade 1, 2, 3). After adjustments for confounders, the hazard ratio (HR) for the use of bone cement on 1-year mortality was assessed.
Results — The incidence of hypoxia and/or hypotension was higher in the cemented (28%) compared with the uncemented group (17%) (p = 0.003). The incidence of severe hypotension/hypoxia (grade 2 or 3) was 6.9% in the cemented, but not observed in the uncemented group. The use of bone cement was an independent risk factor for 1-year mortality (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.7), when adjusted for confounders.
Interpretation — The use of bone cement in hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures increases the incidence of intraoperative hypoxia and/or hypotension and is an independent risk factor for postoperative 1-year mortality. Efforts should be made to identify patients at risk for BCIS and alternative strategies for the management of these patients should be considered.