The mean ten-year results of metal-on-metal hybrid hip resurfacing arthroplastyH. C. Amstutz, M. J. Le Duff
This study presents the long-term survivorship, risk factors for prosthesis survival, and an assessment of the long-term effects of changes in surgical technique in a large series of patients treated by metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA).
Patients and Methods
Between November 1996 and January 2012, 1074 patients (1321 hips) underwent HRA using the Conserve Plus Hip Resurfacing System. There were 787 men (73%) and 287 women (27%) with a mean age of 51 years (14 to 83). The underlying pathology was osteoarthritis (OA) in 1003 (75.9%), developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in 136 (10.3%), avascular necrosis in 98 (7.4%), and other conditions, including inflammatory arthritis, in 84 (6.4%).
The mean follow-up time was 10.5 years (1 to 20). Using revision for any reason as the endpoint, the overall survivorship at 15 years was 89.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 86.8 to 91.4). There was a substantial increase between the first and second generation of surgical technique (86.6% vs 90.1%; p = 0.05). Men with idiopathic OA had a 15-year survivorship of 94.5% and women, 82.2% (p = 0.001); gender was not a risk factor after stratification by component size and aetiology. Using revision for excessive wear (ion levels > 7 µg/l associated with symptoms or adverse local tissue reactions) as the endpoint, the 15-year survivorship was 98.5%. Risk factors for revision for all modes of failure were an underlying pathology of hip dysplasia, a contact patch to rim (CPR) distance of 7 mm or less, an age at surgery of 55 years or less, and a femoral component size of 46 mm or less. Specific risk factors for aseptic failure of the femoral component were early surgical technique, a cementless metaphyseal stem, and a body mass index of 24 kg/m2 or less.
HRA is a viable concept; metal-on-metal bearings are well suited for this procedure when a well-designed device is properly implanted. The best results were obtained in men with OA, but survivorship was better for other underlying pathologies and for women after changes were made to the technique of implantation. Lifetime durability is a possible outcome for many patients despite a high level of activity.