The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 35, Issue 1, 76 - 81

The Hemodynamic Effect of Epinephrine-Containing Local Infiltration Analgesia After Tourniquet Deflation During Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Observational Study

Yoo, Seokha et al.
Knee

Background

Local infiltration analgesia (LIA) is widely used in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and often contains epinephrine for a prolonged analgesic effect and to reduce systemic absorption of the local anesthetic. This retrospective observational study investigated the hemodynamic effect of locally infiltrated epinephrine after deflation of the tourniquet during total knee arthroplasty.

Methods

We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty between January 2017 and February 2018 at a tertiary care university hospital. Total knee arthroplasty was performed using a conventional technique with a pneumatic tourniquet. LIA consisted of ropivacaine, morphine sulfate, ketorolac, and methylprednisolone. The patients were grouped according to whether or not epinephrine was included in the LIA. The incidence of a hypertensive response (systolic blood pressure >160 mmHg or mean blood pressure >110 mmHg) after deflation of the tourniquet was compared between the 2 groups.

Results

A total of 452 patients had received LIA with (n = 188) or without (n = 264) epinephrine. A hypertensive response after deflation of the tourniquet was more common in patients who received LIA containing epinephrine (42/188 [22.3%]) than in those who received LIA without epinephrine (14/264 [5.3%], P < .001). However, the incidence of hypotension after deflation of the tourniquet was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .976).

Conclusion

Because epinephrine-containing LIA can result in a hypertensive response after deflation of the tourniquet during total knee arthroplasty, it should be cautiously administered, especially in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities.

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