The chitosan/tri-calcium phosphate bio-composite bone cement promotes better osteo-integration: an in vitro and in vivo studyFang, CH., Lin, YW., Sun, JS. et al.
Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement has a variety of applications in orthopedic surgery, but it also has some shortcomings such as high heat generation during polymerization and poor integration with bone tissue. In this study, a bio-composite bone cement composed of tri-calcium phosphate and chitosan as additives to acrylic bone cement was developed. Our hypothesis is that this new bio-composite bone cement has a better osteo-integration than pure polymethyl methacrylate cement.
Physiological composition, i.e., 65 wt% inorganic and 35 wt% organic components, of tri-calcium phosphate and chitosan contents was selected as degradable additives to replace acrylic bone cement. A series of properties such as exothermic temperature changes, setting time, bio-mechanical characteristics, degradation behaviors, and in vitro cytotoxicity were examined. Preliminary in vivo animal study was also performed.
The results showed that the bio-composite bone cement exhibited lower curing temperature, longer setting time, higher weight loss and porosity after degradation, lower compressive Young’s modulus, and ultimate compressive strength as compared with those of pure polymethyl methacrylate cement. Cell proliferation tests demonstrated that the bio-composite bone cement was non-cytotoxic, and the in vivo tests revealed that was more osteo-conductive.
The results indicated that the modified chitosan/tri-calcium phosphate/polymethyl methacrylate bio-composites bone cement could be degraded gradually and create rougher surfaces that would be beneficial to cell adherence and growth. This new bio-composite bone cement has potential in clinical application. Our future studies will focus on long-term implantation to investigate the stability of the bio-composite bone cement in long-term implantation.