Previous surveys of orthopedic surgeons have shown considerable variation in thromboprophylaxis for venous thromboembolism after joint arthroplasty. This survey aimed to determine the current practice among Australian orthopedic surgeons. A questionnaire regarding the duration, reasons, and methods of chemical and mechanical prophylaxis for hip and knee arthroplasty patients was sent to the 1082 surgeons identified; 593 (55%) members completed the questionnaire. The survey revealed that 98% of surgeons used chemical thromboprophylaxis, mainly low-molecular-weight heparin (84% hip and 79% knee). Those who use low-molecular-weight heparin were more likely to prescribe anticoagulants in fear of litigation (19.2% vs 10.1%, P = .04) and more likely to rely on protocols or guidelines (32.2% vs 17.2%, P = .004) instead of basing their decision on their own reading (52.4% vs 71.3%, P = .001). Most orthopedic surgeons in our survey have indicated that they would welcome guidelines from their association or college regarding thromboprophylaxis in arthroplasty.