The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 36, Issue 2, 542 - 549.e3

The Association of Calcium and Vitamin D Use With Implant Survival of Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

Kong, Youngho et al.


Calcium and vitamin D have been regarded as beneficial nutrients for bone metabolism that may affect survival of arthroplasties. However, the relationship between their use and revision rate of knee arthroplasty has not been evaluated. Thus, we investigated an association between calcium and vitamin D use and the revision rate after primary total knee arthroplasty.


A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using the Korean National Health Insurance database. We included patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis and underwent primary total knee arthroplasty between 2009 and 2018. Risk for arthroplasty revision was estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates. Log-rank test was used to assess survival of knee arthroplasty.


Out of 142,147 subjects, 28,403 were calcium and vitamin D users and 113,744 were never users. Calcium and vitamin D significantly reduced the revision risk with a 6-month drug use lag period (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-0.70). Calcium and vitamin D combination use for more than 1 year was associated with reduced revision risks in both patients with periprosthetic joint infection (aHR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.95) and patients without infection (aHR 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.91). Implant survival was significantly improved in calcium and vitamin D combination users for more than 1 year compared with never users (log-rank P < .001).


Combination use of calcium and vitamin D with a dose of 800 IU or greater for more than 1 year was associated with the greatest reduction in the risks for revision surgery after total knee arthroplasty.

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