Sexual and ethnic polymorphism result in considerable mismatch between native trochlear geometry and off-the-shelf TKA prosthesesMüller, J.H., Li, K., Reina, N. et al.
To determine if trochlear morphology in healthy knees depends on sex and ethnicity, and to compare it to off-the-shelf TKA prostheses.
Three retrospective series of CT angiograms from France (female, 124; male, 135), China (female, 122; male, 137) and South Africa (female, 21; male, 62) were used to digitize osseous landmarks at the level of the femoral epicondyles. Sulcus angle, trochlear rotation, lateral trochlear inclination, trochlear asymmetry ratio, and trochlear depth index were quantified for each knee and for 10 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) models. Univariable regression analyses were performed to determine associations of the five trochlear parameters with sex and ethnicity. Interquartile ranges (IQR) of native trochlear parameters were compared to the trochlear parameters of 10 off-the-shelf TKA prostheses.
Compared to French knees, Chinese knees had greater sulcus angle (β = 6.3°, p < 0.001), trochlear rotation (β = 0.8°, p = 0.004) and trochlear depth index (β = 1.60, p < 0.001). Conversely, South African knees had greater trochlear rotation (β = 1.9°, p < 0.001) and lateral trochlear inclination (β = 3.7°, p < 0.001). Female knees had smaller trochlear asymmetry ratios (β = − 0.03, p = 0.05) but greater trochlear rotation angles (β = 0.7, p = 0.005). Considerable mismatches in trochlear morphology were revealed between native knees and off-the-shelf TKA prostheses.
The findings suggest that thresholds used in the diagnosis of patellofemoral instability should be adapted to patient sex and ethnicity, and that standard off-the-shelf TKA may not restore native trochlear parameters in all patients.
Level of evidence
III, retrospective comparative.