The Journal of Arthroplasty, Volume 34, Issue 7, 1476 - 1482

Sagittal Alignment of the Femoral Component and Patient Height Are Associated With Persisting Flexion Contracture After Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

Okamoto, Yoshinori et al.


The aim of our retrospective case-control study is to identify risk factors associated with a persisting flexion contracture after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This is an important clinical issue as a flexion contraction can lead to poor long-term clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction after TKA.


The study group included 120 knees treated for a varus osteoarthritic deformity of the knee using a posterior cruciate-retaining TKA. We evaluated the association between a flexion contracture >10°, 2 years after surgery, and the following potential risk factors, using logistic regression analysis: age, body height, body mass index, preoperative knee extension and hip-knee-ankle angle, and radiological parameters of component alignment, namely the femoral component medial angle, the femoral component flexion angle (FFA), the tibial component medial angle, and the posterior tibial slope.


Of the 120 knees, a persisting flexion contracture >10° was identified in 33 (28%). The mean FFA in these cases was 7.3° (standard deviation, 1.4) compared to 4.2° (standard deviation, 1.2) for cases with a contracture of ≤10° ( P = .034). On multivariate analysis, the FFA (odds ratio, 3.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-17.81; P = .034) and body height (odds ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.57; P = .041) were independent predictive risk factors for a residual flexion contracture >10°.


Clinicians should be aware that flexed position of the femoral component, particularly in patients of short stature, is associated with increased occurrence of persistent flexion contracture.

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