Role of microRNA in muscle regeneration and diseases related to muscle dysfunction in atrophy, cachexia, osteoporosis, and osteoarthritisJoanna Brzeszczyńska, Filip Brzeszczyński, David F Hamilton, Robin McGregor, A. Hamish R. W. Simpson
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as potential predictive, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarkers, relevant to many pathophysiological conditions including limb immobilization, osteoarthritis, sarcopenia, and cachexia. Impaired musculoskeletal homeostasis leads to distinct muscle atrophies. Understanding miRNA involvement in the molecular mechanisms underpinning conditions such as muscle wasting may be critical to developing new strategies to improve patient management. MicroRNAs are powerful post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in muscle and, importantly, are also detectable in the circulation. MicroRNAs are established modulators of muscle satellite stem cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation, however, there have been limited human studies that investigate miRNAs in muscle wasting. This narrative review summarizes the current knowledge as to the role of miRNAs in the skeletal muscle differentiation and atrophy, synthesizing the findings of published data.