BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2019 20:262

Real-time intraoperative 3D image intensifier-based navigation in reversed shoulder arthroplasty- analyses of image quality

Jan Theopold, Philipp Pieroh, Ralf Henkelmann, Georg Osterhoff & Pierre Hepp


Due to the high anatomical variability and limited visualization of the scapula, optimal screw placement for baseplate anchorage in reversed total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) is challenging. Image quality plays a key role regarding the decision of an appropriate implant position. However, these data a currently missing for rTSA and were investigated in the present study. Furthermore, the rate of required K-wire changes for the central peg as well as post-implantation inclination and version were assessed.


In ten consecutive patients (8 female, 86 years, range 74–94) with proximal humeral fracture and indication for rTSA, an intraoperative 3D-scan of the shoulder with a 3D image intensifier (Ziehm Vision FD Vario 3D© [Ziehm Imaging GmbH, Nürnberg, Germany]) was performed after resection of the humeral head. Using the Vectorvision© Software (Brainlab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany), the virtual anatomy was compared to the visible anatomical landmarks. After implantation of the baseplate, a 3D scan was performed. All 3D scans included multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and the cinemode to examine screw and baseplate placement. The rate of required K-wire changes was assessed. The intraoperative 3D image quality (modified visual analogue scale [VAS] and point system) was assessed before and after implantation of the glenoid component. Inclination and version were determined in post-implantation scans.


The virtually presented anatomical landmarks always correlated to the anatomical visible points indicating an good virtual accuracy. The central K-wire position was corrected in three cases due to a deviation from the face plane technique position. The VAS was higher for the pre-implantation MPR (6.7, range 5–8) compared to the post-implantation acquired MPR (5.1, range 4–6; p = 0.0002). The point system showed a reduced quality in all subcategories, especially regarding the grading of the articular surfaces. The preoperative (7.9, range 6–9) and post-implantation (7.9, range 6–9) cinemode displayed no significant differences (p = 0.6).


The present study underlines the need for the improvement of 3D image intensifiers algorithms to reduce artifact associated impaired image quality to enhance the benefit of real-time intraoperative 3D scans and navigation.

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