Protective role of IL‐1β against post‐arthroplasty Staphylococcus aureus infectionNicholas M. Bernthal Jonathan R. Pribaz Alexandra I. Stavrakis Fabrizio Billi John S. Cho Romela Irene Ramos Kevin P. Francis Yoichiro Iwakura Lloyd S. Miller
Ankle Elbow Hip Knee Shoulder Wrist
MyD88 is an adapter molecule that is used by both IL‐1R and TLR family members to initiate downstream signaling and promote immune responses. Given that IL‐1β is induced after Staphylococcus aureus infections and TLR2 is activated by S. aureus lipopeptides, we hypothesized that IL‐1β and TLR2 contribute to MyD88‐dependent protective immune responses against post‐arthroplasty S. aureus infections. To test this hypothesis, we used a mouse model of a post‐arthroplasty S. aureus infection to compare the bacterial burden, biofilm formation and neutrophil recruitment in IL‐1β‐deficient, TLR2‐deficient and wild‐type (wt) mice. By using in vivo bioluminescence imaging, we found that the bacterial burden in IL‐1β‐deficient mice was 26‐fold higher at 1 day after infection and remained 3‐ to 10‐fold greater than wt mice through day 42. In contrast, the bacterial burden in TLR2‐deficient mice did not differ from wt mice. In addition, implants harvested from IL‐1β‐deficient mice had more biofilm formation and 14‐fold higher adherent bacteria compared with those from wt mice. Finally, IL‐1β‐deficient mice had ∼50% decreased neutrophil recruitment to the infected postoperative joints than wt mice. Taken together, these findings suggest a mechanism by which IL‐1β induces neutrophil recruitment to help control the bacterial burden and the ensuing biofilm formation in a post‐surgical joint.