The Knee, ISSN: 1873-5800, Vol: 23, Issue: 4, Page: 637-41

Preoperative varus–valgus kinematic pattern throughout flexion persists more strongly after cruciate-retaining than after posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty

Hino, Kazunori; Oonishi, Yoshio; Kutsuna, Tatsuhiko; Watamori, Kunihiko; Iseki, Yasutake; Kiyomatsu, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Seiji; Miura, Hiromasa


  • We evaluated the pre- and postoperative varus–valgus kinematics throughout the range of motion (ROM).
  • Varus–valgus kinematic patterns could be classified into five broad types.
  • The preoperative kinematic pattern persisted more strongly after cruciate-retaining (CR)- than posterior-stabilized (PS)-TKA.
  • CR-TKA and PS-TKA differed in the distribution of changes.




Restoration of normal knee kinematics is key to improving patient satisfaction and functional outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the effect of preoperative varus–valgus kinematics due to knee osteoarthritis on the postoperative kinematics is unclear. The function of the knee ligament contributes to both knee stability and kinematics. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in varus–valgus kinematics before and after TKA using a navigation system, in addition to comparing the pre- and postoperative changes in kinematic patterns between cruciate-retaining (CR)- and posterior-stabilized (PS)-TKAs.


Forty knees treated with TKA were evaluated (CR-TKA 20; PS-TKA 20). Manual mild passive knee flexion was applied while moving the leg from full extension to flexion. The varus–valgus angle was automatically measured by a navigation system at every 10° of the flexion angle, and the kinematics were evaluated.


Kinematic patterns throughout flexion can be classified into five types. The pre- and postoperative kinematic patterns were similar in 60% of patients who underwent CR-TKA, whereas they were similar in only 25% of those who underwent PS-TKA. The mean change in the size of the varus–valgus angle throughout flexion did not differ between CR-TKA and PS-TKA. However, the distribution of changes in the size of the varus–valgus angle differed between CR-TKA and PS-TKA.


We obtained the following results: 1) some patterns of varus–valgus kinematics are noted under unloading conditions despite recovery of neutral alignment in extension and 2) the preoperative varus–valgus kinematic pattern persisted more strongly after CR-TKA than after PS-TKA.

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