The Journal of Arthroplasty , Volume 33 , Issue 9 , 2851 - 2857

Posterior Reference Position Affects Intraoperative Kinematic and Soft Tissue Balance in Navigated Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty

Ishida, Kazunari et al.


The importance of medial compartment stability is recognized in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). To manage the medial extension-flexion gap, the posterior reference position can be changed from conventional posterior center to posterior medial in measured resection techniques. This study aimed to compare the intraoperative soft tissue balance and rotational kinematics between the posterior medial and posterior center reference groups.


We enrolled 57 consecutive patients with varus osteoarthritis undergoing posterior-stabilized (PS) TKA using an image-free navigation system. The detailed surgical plan in both groups and intraoperative kinematics were recorded using navigation, and soft tissue balance measured with an offset-type tensor was statistically compared between groups.


Patients were divided into the posterior center reference group (n = 32) and posterior medial reference group (n = 25). The posterior medial and posterior lateral condyles were significantly thicker in the posterior center reference group (P < .05). Although preoperative rotational kinematics were comparable between groups, the tibial rotational position was significantly more externally rotated in the posterior center reference group than in the posterior medial reference group at 45°, 60°, and 90° of flexion (P < .05). The varus angle and joint component gap were significantly smaller in the posterior medial reference group than in the posterior center reference group at 60° and 90° of flexion (P < .05).


The posterior reference position affects intraoperative kinematics and soft tissue balance in navigated PS TKA. Posterior medial reference PS TKA decreases the excessive tibial external rotation during midflexion and increases the flexion stability compared with conventional posterior center reference PS TKA.

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