The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery; July 1, 2020; 102 (13): 1160

Periprosthetic Joint Infection in Patients Who Have Multiple Prostheses in Place

Komnos George A., MD; Manrique Jorge, MD; Goswami Karan, MD, MRCS; Tan Timothy L., MD; Restrepo Camilo, MD; Sherman Matthew B., BS; Parvizi Javad, MD, FRCS
Hip Knee
Background: Although periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can affect multiple joints concurrently, the majority of patients with multiple prosthetic joints present with PJI of a single joint. Data regarding the optimal management of these patients are limited. We aimed to identify the prevalence, risk factors for a subsequent PJI, and clinical circumstances of PJI in patients with multiple prosthetic joints.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 197 patients with ≥2 total joint prostheses in place who presented with PJI from 2000 to 2017. The average follow-up was 3.6 years (range, 0.5 to 17 years). Demographic data and risk factors for synchronous or metachronous PJI were identified. The time from the initial to the second PJI and organism profile data were collected as well. The workup for other joints with a prosthesis in place at the time of the initial PJI was noted.
Results: Among the 197 patients with PJI and multiple joint prostheses in situ, 37 (19%) developed PJI in another joint; 11 had a synchronous PJI and 26 had a metachronous PJI. The average time between the first and the second infection in the metachronous cases was 848 days (range, 20 to 3,656 days). Females and patients with an initial PJI with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were more likely to have a metachronous PJI, and patients with rheumatoid arthritis had an increased risk of a second (metachronous or synchronous) PJI. Three of 11 patients in the synchronous group and 19% (5) of the 26 in the metachronous group had bacteremia at the time of the initial PJI compared with 12% (19) of the 160 with a single PJI. The percentage of negative cultures increased from 10% for the initial PJIs to 38% for the metachronous PJIs.
Conclusions: Patients who have multiple prosthetic joints in place and present with PJI of a single joint are at risk of developing PJI in another joint. Female sex, rheumatoid arthritis, bacteremia at presentation, and infection with MRSA appear to be risk factors for PJI of another joint. Clinical evaluation of the other prosthetic joint(s) should be carried out in all patients and aspiration of those joint(s) should be considered for patients with any of the above risk factors.
Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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