Bone Joint Res. 2020;9(3):120–129.

Patients with metabolic syndrome have a greater rate of complications after arthroplasty

Cui Guofeng, Yue Chen, Wei Rong, Liu Ruiyu, Wang Kunzheng
Hip Knee

Aims

Patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are known to be at increased risk of postoperative complications, but it is unclear whether MetS is also associated with complications after total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Here, we perform a systematic review and meta-analysis linking MetS to postoperative complications in THA and TKA.

Methods

The PubMed, OVID, and ScienceDirect databases were comprehensively searched and studies were selected and analyzed according to the guidelines of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE). We assessed the methodological quality of each study using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), and we evaluated the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). Data were extracted and meta-analyzed or qualitatively synthesized for several outcomes.

Results

Ten cohort studies involving 1,352,685 patients were included. Qualitative analysis suggested that MetS was associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events, and meta-analysis showed that MetS increased the risk of all-cause complications (risk ratio (RR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28 to 1.89), surgical site infection (SSI; RR 2.99, 95% CI 1.30 to 6.90), urinary tract infection (UTI; RR 2.58, 95% CI 1.03 to 6.43), and 30-day readmission (RR 1.45, 95% CI 1.33 to 1.59). There was insufficient evidence for assessing an association between MetS and venous thromboembolism events, pulmonary or gastrointestinal complications, or mortality.

Conclusion

Patients with MetS undergoing THA and TKA are at increased risk of all-cause complications, cardiovascular complications, SSI, UTI, and 30-day readmission. Surgeons should be aware of the increased risk of these complications in MetS, and presurgical protocols for these complications should give special consideration to MetS patients.


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